Aihole – Cradle of Indian temple architecture

There is so much you can learn from a trip on the road than from your textbooks. I never hated history, in fact I loved reading about the various rulers and kingdoms across India. I had read about the Chalukyas in history books and their contribution to South Indian temple architecture, but looking at these beautiful works of art is a different experience.

During our Mumbai-Hampi road trip, we made our way back through Aihole – Pattadakal – Badami. Our first stop was Aihole, a village in Karnataka. There are almost 120 temples scattered in and around the village. It’s pretty difficult covering that many, but there are some that are accessible and can be covered easily. To understand Aihole, one has to first understand its history, which is mainly the Chalukyas.

Chalukyas

The Chalukyas were a dynasty of Indian rulers primarily ruling parts of Southern and Central India, mostly between the 6th and 12th centuries. The early Chalukyas were based out of Badami. They worshipped both Shiva and Vishnu, but Jainism was also encouraged. Badami and Aihole were early centers of learning.

The Chalukyan era was a golden age for South India, due to development in the field of architecture which came to be known as “Chalukyan architecture”  and also influenced the “Dravidian architecture”.

Aihole Temple Complex

Aihole saw the evolution of Chalukyan architecture, starting from cave temples to constructed temple structures. The Aihole Temple complex houses the most number of temples and displays a good variety of architectural styles to illustrate the Chalukya era architecture and experimentation.

Durga Temple

We hadn’t read anything about the Chalukyas worshiping Goddess Durga. Hence we were pretty excited to see the Durga temple. After doing a complete tour of the temple and searching every nook and corner, we were disappointed and surprised to find not a single Durga idol or reference. Perplexed we went to the Karnataka Tourism Information board right outside to understand what was going on. And we found our answer – “This is not the temple of Goddess Durga, but addressed so due to its vicinity to the fort (Durga)…”! “Durg” or “Durga” is a hindi word for a “Fort”. Well, that solved the puzzle.

Durga Temple
Durga Temple

The temple has a unique architecture. It is a good example of the architectural experimentation that the Chalukyas worked on in this region. The back of the temple is shaped like the behind of an elephant. This architecture style resembles the Indian Parliament design.

The temple was earlier a Surya temple (Sun temple) and later converted into a Shiva temple. The Mantapa and pillars are adorned by various designs and figures of gods (Vishnu, Shiva, Varaha avatar, etc). There are some scenes from the Ramayana as well.

Lad Khan Temple

This is the oldest temple in this complex. It was named after a person residing in the temple when it was discovered. This also was initially a Surya temple which was later converted to a Shiva temple. This temple was presumably used in the Early Chalukya times for various rituals and religious functions.

Lad Khan Temple
Lad Khan Temple

This temple’s design is completely different from Durga temple. It has more of a rectangular structure, with pillars instead of walls on the exterior. This temple is one of the earlier experimentation here. There are not many adornments or forms on the pillars, except for some floral pattern.

Other temples in the complex include the Gaudaragudi and Suryanarayana Gudi temples.

Ravana Phadi

This is one of the oldest and finest cave temples in Aihole. It is visibly a Shiva temple with a Shiva linga inside the inner sanctum. There are various intriguing figures lining the cave’s interiors, including a dancing Shiva (Nataraja) beside Ganesh and Parvati. There is a Nandi right outside the cave’s entrance as is symbolic of all Shiva temples, right opposite to the Shiva Linga.

Ravana Phadi Cave Temple
Ravana Phadi Cave Temple
Ravana Phadi Cave Dwarapals
Ravana Phadi Cave Dwarapals
Ravana Phadi Cave Shiva Linga
Ravana Phadi Cave Shiva Linga

Check out our photo feature on Ravana Phadi cave temple for more pictures.

Tips

  • Do not be mislead by the temple names. Most temples in Aihole do not bear their original names. When they were discovered, local villagers were living in them. Thus they were named based on their location, name of person residing in temple, etc.
  • The interiors of the temples are not lit, hence quite dark, albeit clean. It takes time to adjust to the low-light interiors. Also isn’t good for taking pictures without flash 🙁
  • You would generally need at least two days to cover all the three places.
  • This place hasn’t yet received much recognition on the Indian tourism circuit. I guess the major issue with the area would be non-availability of any hotels, decent restaurants and reliable modes of transportation. But the Badami-Pattadakal-Aihole circuit does make for a good road trip for even the mildly adventurous lot!
  • Avoid visiting during noon as it gets extremely hot.
  • Carry sunscreen, sun glasses and hat.




Please follow and like us:

One thought on “Aihole – Cradle of Indian temple architecture

Leave a Reply